Hi. I moved this article to my new website. Please read its updated and improved version there. Thank you.
Note: My friend Dimityr Kojuharov knows more about Fiodor Gruzinev than just about anyone. He even met Gruzinev’s surviving daughter and learned some details about her father. Basically, most of the information about Gruzinev on the internet is from Kojuharov, so my usual thanks and admiration for the depth of his diverse knowledge.
Dimityr is planning to write an article on Gruzinev’s life and works in a foreign astrological magazine, so my examination of Fiodor’s life will be cursory as I am more interested in letting the astrological community know what ancient authors he drew on and how far ahead of everyone else he was.
Second note: Minutes after publishing the article, I just learned from Kojuharov, after knowing about Fiodor for at least 6 years, that his actual surname is Gruzinev. Dimityr said that the “o” to Gruzinov is a Bulgarian change. You will note below that Fiodor is written in Bulgarian as Gruzinov. I made the corresponding change in the article.
Fiodor Gruzinev (1897-1978) was a Russian from an aristocratic family. He was very well-educated and was also fluent in German, French and English. Though he had prior interest in Astrology, it grew even more when he found a big chest of drawers full of old astrological treatises in one of the basements of the family castle.
When the Bolsheviks took power, he was forced to leave his home country Russia. He travelled extensively in his life, went around almost all of Europe.
He settled in Bulgaria in 1922 and basically lived most of his life in this country. His children kept living in Bulgaria as well. I am glad to say this because Bulgaria is my home country and in this way it deserves some credit as well for the revival of Ancient and Indian Astrology.
Keep in mind that Bulgaria was taken over the Communists in September 1944, and Astrology, among other disciplines, had to go under the radar, just like in the Soviet Union. Various astrological practitioners were sent to concentration camps merely for practising what they love and are good at.
So Gruzinev deserves even more admiration due to this fact.
There is some evidence that Fiodor Gruzinev was a member of a secret society, namely a martinist.
While Gruzinev did not make his living from Astrology, he was really passionate about it. After he retired n 1960, he started writing mostly astrological books, but some also covered palmistry, Astro palmistry, etc.
Gruzinev is the first one in the world to mention the Babylonian/Persian predictive method Firdaria. In fact, he also mentions its original form and quotes a source from the 2nd century BCE. As far as I know, he remains the only author to this day to mention the older form of Firdaria.
Fiodor Gruzinev is the perhaps first astrological practitioner in the world to share some of the secrets of the Jaimini branch of Indian Astrology. Again, I am talking about the 1960s when Jaimini was unknown in Europe and the USA, and in fact it was not that well known in India itself.
Gruzinev wrote about 30 books. He used both his name and a few pen names. Unfortunately most of these cannot be found even in Bulgaria as they were done on a typewriter. I have 3 of them and will probably buy a fourth one. The thing with the books is that there is no contents and one does not know whether Fiodor covers Jyotish or Western Astrology in the given book.
I took the time to go page by page through the 3 books I have from Fiodor Gruzinev and extract the various ancient authors he quotes. In fact Gruzinev draws on some ancient Indian authors, but I did not take the time to write them as the information was more about Jaimini and not the Parashara branch that I am interested in. As far as the Western branch is concerned, Fiodor also quotes authors from the 19th and 20th century, but I am not interested in their innovations so I did not write down their names.
Note: I myself have a substantial library of astrological (and other) books, and even though I am writing this 50+ years after Gruzinev published the books in question, given how much we know now, thanks to Guizeppe Bezza, James Holden, Robert Zoller, Robert Hand, Robert Schmidt, Ben Dykes, etc, + the era of the internet, I am not familiar with more than a few names in the list that follows. I need to consult my copy of James Holden’s Biographical Dictionary of Western Astrologers to get some information on these ancient practitioners. As I am currently busy, I have not done this yet. Besides, I am not sure how many of these he will have in the book. My point is, please excuse any writing errors: I am merely transcribing the unknown names from Cyrillic to Latin. I have given them in the order I came across their names in the books, so it is not chronological or by name.
Save for a handful of authors that follow, Gruzinev actually quotes from all of these:
Andrusar Ibn Zabi Al Farukh aka Doronius
Abu Ali Al Khayyat
Leopold of Austria
Umar al Tabari
Habbas al Hasibal Mervazi
Ibn al Alama
Ahmad Abd al Jalila Sadjisi
Paul of Alexandria
Inb al A’Lam
Abu Jaafar Abdullah ibn Muhammad Almanzor/Al-Mansur
Jean Baptiste Morin
Placido de Titti/Placidus
Poseidonus of Aramea
Antigonus of Nicea
Al ibn Hibinta
Abul Haan Ali Abedraman
What an impressive list! Again, this man was 63 when he retired in 1960 and started writing the astrological books in question. My point is, he most likely knew about a lot of these authors many years earlier.
In addition, Fiodor Gruzinev covers the Lots (he calls them “parts”), how to read the chart topic by topic, the Thema Mundi, primary directions, etc, etc.
What a pioneering spirit this man had! Note that there was no internet back then, or computers/astrological programs.
Gruzinev gives various nativities of notable people in this books. He also quotes a fascinating story about Al Biruni’s predictive abilities, and a different one about Omar Khayyam.
Fiodor Gruzinev also gives his own natal chart and explains his natal promise of not making a living through Astrology and why.
This is his nativity as shown in one of the books in question:
And here it is with my programs, including Gruzinov’s Four Pillars of Destiny chart.
Bibliography (the books are in Bulgarian but I have translated their titles in English for those that are interested):
Специалният начин за тълкуване на хороскопа – превод, подбор и коментари Валдемар Безиссар. Издадена през 1993г от издателство Аратрон – The Special Way of Interpreting the Horoscope. Published in 1993 by Aratron
Астрологията на древните – Фьодор Грузинов 1960. Издадена през 2006г от ИК Българска астрологична асоциация – The Astrology of the Ancients 1960. Published in 2006 by the Bulgarian astrological association
Астрологията звездната наука на арабите – 1965. Издадена през 2008г от издателство Лира Принт – Astrology the Starry Science of the Arabs 1965. Published in 2008 by Lira Print
11 thoughts on “The Pioneering Contribution of Fiodor Gruzinev for the Revival of Ancient and Indian Astrology”
Andrusar Ibn Zabi Al Farukh aka Doronius is known under the names: Al – Andruzagar , Andarzagar ibn Sadan Farruh.
Thank you, Petr!
Given what Gruzinev writes about Andrusar, I knew he was an earlier Perso-Arabic author, but I did not dare hope he was that early and influential. After all, both Abu Mashar and Masha’allah drew on him.
I consulted my copy of James Herschel Holden’s Biographical Dictionary of Western Astrologers, and it says on p.32 that Levy identified him as Andruzagar inb Zabi Al Farrrukh, but according to David Pingree this is Zadhan Farrukh al-Andarzaghar.
If Andrusar is the one from the 9th century, then obviously Masha’allah could not have quoted from him unless this is the real Al Andarzaghar (6th-7th century).
Yes, that’s a question.
RELIGION AND SCIENCE IN ABRAHAM IBN EZRA’S SEFER HA-OLAM
Uskontotieteen pro gradu tutkielma
And al Andruzgar the Israelite (160) said: “We shall always observe the Great Conjunction, which is the conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter (in Aries), and we shall assign one year to every equal degree, and we must start from the place of the conjunction and we must not make haste, whatever the time of year may be. And after 360 years, which is the number of degrees on the wheel, we shall return to look like (we did) at first”.
(160) Andruzgar ben Zadi Faruk, a 9th century Persian Jewish astrologer. Very little is known of him.
Classical and Byzantine Astrology in Sassanian Persia
According to Prof. Pingree, al-Andarzaghar lived during the Sassanid period (224-637 AD):
The one Persian astrologer of the Sassanian period besides Buzurjmihr to whom Arabic authors frequently refer-they, of course, thought Zaradusht and Jamasp were much earlier,was al-Andarzaghar, that is, the advisor (from Pahlavi handarzgar), a scholar named Zadanfarrukh.
Apparently Al-Andarzhagar lived between Buzurjmihr (6th century) and Masha’allah (8th century?
Eliezer Ben Faruh:
By: Richard Gottheil
Jewish mathematician, said by certain Mohammedan authors to have first established the Jewish calendar. He is mentioned by Al-Biruni (972-1048) in his “Chronology of Ancient Nations”; and this account is repeated, almost word for word, in Al-Maḳrizi’s (1364-1442) topographical history of Egypt. Steinschneider has connected him with a certain Andrazzur ibn Zadi Faruḥ, a famous Jewish astronomer mentioned by Al-Kabiṣi, the tenth-century Moslem astrologer, and by Abraham ibn Ezra in his “Sefer ha-Ṭe’amim.” The first name seems to indicate that he was a Persian by birth; and it occurs in such varying forms as “Andruzagar,” “Alezdegoz,” “Alendruzgar.” It has been suggested that there is a confusion here either with Eliezer ben Hyrcanus or Eleazar ben ‘Arak. Sachau reads (I Kings iv. 17).
Thank you for your invaluable contribution, Petr.
I went through Al Andarazaghar’s book On Anniversary Horoscopes by Charles Burnett and Ahmed al Hamdi. While the topic is entirely predictive, comparing with Gruzinev’s translation of Andrusar, which covers natal material only, one could get some sense as to whether this is the same author, even though the text has gone through 3-4 languages.
What we know of Al Andarzaghar is his emphasis on the triplicity rulers. Well, Andrusar not only does not emphasize them but he does not always cover them. As such, this is one strong indication that Andrusar is not Al Andarzaghar. Even if that is the case, and Andrusar is the one from the 9th century, he gives some information on various topics which is definitely ancient, and I have not read it in any other author.
Check p. 90 of this pdf. It mentions Al Andarzaghar, and the year is 633 AD, although this is not an astrological book:
Andrusar Ibn Zabi Al Farukh aka Doronius = Dorotheus of Sidon
What makes you say that, Petr? Could you please explain?
Астрологията – звездната наука на арабите
Тълкуване на „ Сто изречения “ на Андрусар ибн Заби ал Фаррух
Моят приятел Сергей Брат – учен ориенталист, ми съобщи, че в Багдад в библиотеката „Аз-Захарий“ се намира ръкописът на Омар „ 19 въпроса по астрология“, в който се споменава за „Сто изречения“ на знаменития Майстор Дорониус. В Ранного средновековие с това име е бил известен Андру cap ибн Заби ал Фаррух. Ръкописът на Омар е с No 4871. Дорониус е бил знаменит изследовател на тайните на природа- та, свързани с окуптните ордени на Изтока. Неговите „Сто изречения“ се отнасят главно до натадната астрология. Изреченията на Дорониус ще послужат за основа на настоящата книга. Коментарите към тях са от из¬вестимте астролози Хермес, Фирмикус2, Карданус3, Хали и Птолемей4 или от някои други. Когато е необходимо, ще ги давам предимно аз. Ка¬то резерва имам и афоризмите на Ал Батани*, Албумазар6, Хаббас ал Ха- сиб ал Мервази, Ибн ал Алама, Мессахала7 и Ал Кинди8, конто се отнасят отчасти към натадната, отчасти към хорарната и други видове астрология.
ASTRONOMICAL AND ASTROLOGICAL SCIENCES IN LATIN TRANSLATION
A CRITICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY
BY FRANCIS J. CARMODY
Author: The forms Dorochius, Doronius, and Doratius always represent, presumably, Dorotheus Sidonius.
Abraham Ibn Ezra on Elections, Interrogations, and Medical Astrology
1: Dorotheus, Hebrew …. This astrologer is to be identified with Dorotheus of Sidon, author of the well-known Pentabibios (Carmen astrologicum, 1976)- Here and elsewhere Ibn Ezra refers to Dorotheus as Doronius, a mistake produced by a mispointing of the Arabic text. “Doronius” as an explicit appellation for Dorotheus of Sidon is found in an early twelfth-century Iberian setting in the Liber Aristotilis De ducen- lis LVque Indorum voluminibus universalim questionum tarn genelialium quam circularium summam continens (The Book of Aristotle contain ing the totality of the questions, both genethlialogical and revolution¬ary, from the 255 volumes of the Indians), an astrological treatise by Hugo of Santalla dedicated to Michael, bishop ofTarazona from 1119 to 1151. Hugo of Santalla ascribes 13 works of astrology to Doronius, eight of which (divided into 89 chapters) deal with historical astrology; the other five constitute a single work, of which the first four are on genelh- lialogy and the fifth on interrogations (Liber Aristotilis, 1997» pp. 1» 4» 15). This is the fifth hook, on interrogations, of the didactic poem on horoscopic astrology known in Greek as the Pentateuch (“five books”) (Carmen astrologicum, 1976, pp. 264-322). But in a Byzantine transla tion of a bibliography, Masha allah ascribes 11 works to Dorotheus: four on genethlialogy, three (rather than one) on interrogations, three on cal dilation, and one (rather than eight) on conjunctions (Liber Aristotilis, 1997. pp. 4» 201 214). Dorotheus Pentabiblos was translated into Ara¬bic by Umar b. al-Farrukhan al-Tabari and Masha’allah from a previ¬ous translation into Pahlavi (Pingree, 1997, p. 46). That Ibn Ezra was acquainted with the Arabic translations of Dorotheus’work, which were contaminated with Sasanian material and references to Hermes and other astrologers, is suggested by the fact that in She’elot II, §1:1, as well as in ‘Olam I, *Olam II, and Te’amim I, Dorotheus is referred to as a king (‘Olam I, §32:1, pp. 72-73; ‘Olam II, §24:1, pp. 172-173; Te’amim I, §2.18:2, pp. 58-59), just as in the translation of Dorotheus’ work (Car-men astrologicum, 1976, p. 262).
Thank you for the very detailed reply, Petr.
My remarks are these:
Quote from your post above:
“Author: The forms Dorochius, Doronius, and Doratius always represent, presumably, Dorotheus Sidonius.”. Note the word “presumably”.
The style in which the treatise by Andrusar Ibn Zabi Al Farukh is written differs from that of Dorotheus. Each author uses crucial elements that the other does not.
On the other hand, I am not a translator and thus cannot discount that this is not Dorotheus. After all, since a translator of the caliber of Ben Dykes, after years of claiming that the Book of Aristotle was written by Masha’allah, said in a recent interview with Chris Brennan that he now thinks the author is actually Al Andarzaghar.
Thank you for your comments.
Many other authors quote: Doronius = Dorotheus of Sidon:
Introduction au Centiloquium Par Giuseppe Bezza
Abano (1992 : 116-117) : « Nosce quippe quod Ptholomeus in Quadripartito non tetigit interrogationes neque electiones eo quod, secundum Haly Rodoan ipsum commentantem, existimavit ipsas res viles et debiles fore, neque ipso dignas ; eas tamen partialiter tetigit in Centiloquio, quas etiam maximus iudicum Doroteus, seu Doronius, concessit.
Le septième chapitre de l’affaire des planètes
…Et aussi les Anciens n’ont pas mentionné pour les étoiles souveraines qui sont en l’orbe des signes de combien est la mesure de leur force, sinon que Doronius (Dorothée) dit que c’est le quart du signe. …
Alain G. Cablais
A proposito dell’antichità della domificazione placidiana
Hermes, Ptholomeus, Doronius, Meschela,Albumasar, omnes saraceni quoque magistri probationum dicunt…
6. Doronius = Doroteo di Sidone; Meschela = Mâshâ’allâh; anche al-Zarqalî sembra dividere le case secondo il principio di Ermete, cfr. Millas Vallicrosa, Estudios sobre Azarquiel, Madrid-Granada 1943-1950, p. 47.
ARABIAN SCIENCE AND LEARNING OP THE WEST : A NOTE ON SOME MEDIEVAL MANU SCRIPTS OF THE TRANSYLVANIAN SAXONS
Further on, we can read an extensive astrological and political prognostication,24 quoting the Book of the Nine Judges,*6 Pseudo-Thomas- of Aquino, Dionysius, Ptolemy’s Centiloquium, the Quadripartitusy Leo¬pold Duke of Austria, unknown fragments of “Doronius” (Dorotheus Sidonius), “Galienus” (Ibn Haitham, translator of Pseudo-Apollonius Tyaneus),28 “Halihabenxagal” (Ali ibn Ali Bijal), “Missahalach” (Masha’’ allah ibn Athari),27 “Aldehabicius” (Al Qabi’si), “Afriganus” (A1 Far- ghain),28 “Aaron” (At Tabari),29 “Alkindus” or A1 Kindi30, “Abraham a Venere”(Abraham ibn Ezra),31“Alburaasar” (Abu Ma’shar)32 and Albertus Magnus’ Liber de possibilitatibus (De potentiis animae)33 and Liber occi- dencium — apparently his commentary on Aristotle’s De generatione et corruptione 34
I think it is about the certainty of this equality. Gruzinev writes that „Сто изречения“ was part of Omar(apparently Omar Khayyam) work. Who translated Omar into Bulgarian, we do not know. Perhaps the translation was the work of Сергей Брат . It seems to me very unlikely, that Gruzinev did not know the work of Dorotheus.
Thank you for yet another detailed reply, Petr.
Gruzinev did know about Dorotheus. He mentions him in his book translated in Bulgarian “Специалният начин за тълкуване на хороскопа”, where on page 260, dealing with the combination of the 12 places and the 12 zoidia, he mentions various authors such as Ptolemy, Bonatti, Ibn Ezra, John of Spain, Вуелиус (Vuelius) and Dorotheus and puts the name (Дорохиус) in brackets. He also quotes in what sources a more detailed description of these can be found.